Event ID: 1637424
Event Started: 10/18/2010 2:42:32 PM ET
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Good afternoon. Welcome to employment policy for people with disabilities entitled business perceptions and trends from senior executives on the employment of people with disabilities. This forum is focused on the findings from the 2010 Kessler national organization on disability, survey of employment of Americans with disabilities.My name is Susanne Bruyere and I am your facilitator today . I want to acknowledge as we began, these programs is a series of programs that we offer from corn now University -- Cornell University from the Department of Education US Department of education national associated disability and rehabilitation and the rehabilitation training center for policy for people with disabilities.

Our slides, I will take a moment to go back to our slides. They are dancing and I'm going to need to start at the beginning. My apologies for this delay. Our partners for this particular project is the employment disability Institute, here at Cornell University, Department of analysis and management and the College of human ecology, Mathematica policy research the American Association of people with disabilities at Rutgers University school of management and Labor Relations program for disability research. This seems to be advancing to the end. I am not sure why it is doing that. I don't know if you can tell me with that, Jeff. This is advancing inadvertently. Our speakers for todayare Humphrey Taylor the chairman of the Harris poll and a board member of the national organization on disability. Roger J. LaRose's president and CEO of the Kessler foundation. Carol Glazier the president national organization on disability and made O'Connell director of corporate programs on national organization on disability. The speaker and facilitator, Humphrey Taylor will introduce her other three guess but I want to say more about Humphrey Taylor and we are pleased to have him here to facilitate this policy forum today. He is a widely recognized leader in the research industry having conducted more than 8000 surveys in 80 countries. He has overseen all of the national organization on disability surveys since 1986. On these disability focused topics and has testified to congressional committees and subcommittees on policies affecting people with disabilities.

The research and the studies and has testimony also have supported such a significant pieces of legislation related to people with disabilities as the Americans with disabilities act. We are pleased to have this survey as the topic and Humphrey Taylor as our spokesperson and with that, I'm going to turn over to Humphrey Taylor to introduce her other speakers and proceed with your presentation.

Thank you. First of all I like to say a big thank you to Cornell,to Susanne Bruyere and colleagues for organizing the webinar and allowing us to present the results of our research. I would also like to say a big thank you to both Roger and Carol. Roger is the president and CEO of the Kessler foundation and I am sure he will say a little bit more about the foundation later on that they are committed to very many issues of great importance to people with disabilities and Carol, as the president of the national organization of disabilities and she is a major player in the disability field and a member of the board, they are doing a spectacular job, which I'm proud to be associated with it. Let me know, if I may, to say a word about the survey.

I am not going to read you everything that is on all of the slides, but mainly here, to report the results of the survey, over 400 senior managers, half of them HR people and have them senior executives of a cross section of large, medium and small companies that we surveyed in March and April of this year.

Maybe somebody else can move this along if I say next each time. The purpose of the research, we wanted to focus very much on what employers are and are not doing and the policies that they have and what the practices they have in terms of the hiring and training and retaining in helping people with disabilities in the workforce.

Before we get to the survey, but I am mainly presenting which is the survey of employers, I wanted to remind you of a results of the survey released earlier this year in which we look at a cross section of Americans with disabilities that we surveyed in July and on the left-hand side on this chart, you can see within the most recent survey, only 21% of Americans with disabilities, aged 18 to 64, working full-time or part-time and that was a big drop from all of the previous surveys it conducted since 1986.

Of course, there was a large drop amongst people without disabilities and this reflects the current economy. But the bad news here, we have relatively few people with disabilities who are in the workforce. And although the gap has narrowed a little bit, the gap is, of course, still huge between people with and without disabilities.

This is a summary of the key findings and I'll take a little bit of time on this show you some of the data to support it. Fully found, disabilities on the radar screen for some companies, especially larger ones, but nothing like the same degree that diversity in general is. We found the majority of employers have hired some people with disabilities over the past three years but they make up a very small percentage of most workforces. Furthermore, we found that few companies actually have a disability program. The companies that do have it include several aspects of employment processes, but the numbers are small. We find that most employers are not using private sector or public sector or provider agencies to help people with disabilities. There are several bits of good news. One is the cost of employing a person with a disability, along with the workability's, actually it's comparable to those with disabilities and those in some respect without disabilities and in some respects, actually better. The Corporation, unfortunately, seem to largely in different to the whole issue of hiring people with disabilities and to the impact of the ADA which they see as much -- minimal.

Do you want to add a general comment before it moved to the data?

Now. We are good. Thank you.

We are okay.

Next. Let's move to the detailed findings. Here, we asked the cross section of employers if they have a diversity program of any kind. And a diversity policy. And over half have some kind of diversity policy and one third have a diversity program.

We then asked them what was actually included in that diversity program and you'll see that 67% of those with a program or a policy say that it does include disabilities. To that extent, it is on the radar screen of many companies. Just on the edge of the radar screen in the life of the data that follows.

Here we asked specifically about having a disability specific policy or program and only 25% have a disability policy and only 12%, one out of eight, has a disability program. 12% is a very small number and a disappointing small number. Carol, or Roger, do you want to comment on that?

Comfrey -- Mary Dolan I would say many companies established in the wake of the ADA are good of course, but they are merely written policies and of course, where the rubber meets the road, programs and people in metrics and those of the things that we care most about. Policies are good. Programs and other variables are much more important.

I would just add, Humphrey Taylor, these slides, in addition to the ones that you are going to be speaking to you, really prove to me that businesses have the basic policies to comply with ADA but as Carol pointed out, it is not enough. They really need to dramatically increase the recruitment efforts as they have done with the other minority groups that make up diversity. I know we will be getting into some of those points later on.

Next if we may. We asked another question of these employers. Do you have a specific person whose job it is to think about hiring people with disabilities? Only 19% of employers said that they did. One out of five.

We also asked if they had a disability education program to help managers deal with disability issues. We found that less than one out of five, 18%, said they offered a program of some kind, to help the managers.

Humphrey Taylor, before we move, I wanted to address that issue because I think it relates to a very important variable in that is disclosure. I think we have generally a problem with people with disabilities in the workforce not being willing to disclose the disabilities and then, of course, what that leads to, they don't get the accommodations that they often need to be productive as they possibly can in the workforce. It is critical that we trained managers, that we train coworkers and we help with disability awareness because it is only then that we are by to break down the misperceptions and some of the mythology that surrounds disability in the workplace. They really can't be emphasized enough and we have seen this in our own experience. We have made O'Connell who is the director of corporate programs and with the recent partnerships with lows, funded by the Kessler foundation and Sam's Club, but we are finding is one of the most important things we can do with this company to help them become more disability friendly is to put into place training programs on disability awareness for managers.

That would just add, Humphrey Taylor, I think another aspect of this is that there are so many types of disabilities that often times, they get grouped together in the minds of society and of course corporations. And, for example, there are differences between physical and cognitive disabilities that both employers and employees should understand and in fact, if there are HR managers listening today, they should consider including people with disabilities to help teach, train, and educate the workforces on disabilities and they should certainly consider doing so because they are really missing a key tactic in their educational outreach efforts.

Thank you. Here you will see 56%, and I would say only 56% of a cross-section of large, medium and small employers say that they are aware they have hired anyone with a disability in the last three years. I might add there is a substantial difference on this and other questions between large medium and small companies. Large companies they're much more likely to say yes. But what it shows, again, many employers are not even thinking about our tracking whether or not they actually hire anybody with a disability and only if they had hired any.

This shows the difference and large, medium, and small with 43% of smaller companies and 74% of larger companies saying they hire somebody with a disability in the last three years. One quarter of all large companies are not aware of having anybody with a disability in the past three years.

You actually manage what you measure and if you don't measure something, you don't actually manage it. We found that one third of employers were keeping track of whether they hire people with disabilities and how many people they have working for them with disabilities. Do you have a comment?

It is Roger. You hit it right on the head in terms of measuring, measurement as an important benchmark and IT organizations, like Walgreens and lows as leaders in creating benchmarks that are helping to determine if they are meeting their employment goals with disabilities and in addition, that look at productivity instruments as other key goals across and this is a very important slide organizations to consider.

This is made. -- This is Meg. I wanted to say this is a very important slide to the last 20 years. There has been a lot of sensitivity about tracking individuals with disabilities and disclosure issues and this goes to show you that companies want to track and measure and they want to know how well they are doing. In large part, it is a voluntary disclosure. There is also tracking and measuring from a recruiting this -- perspective so there are some ways that companies are being created about getting around the disclosure issue and this is key for organizations to be able to stand up and say, I am doing something bigger and better than just disability awareness and sensitivity training. I have policies and I have programs and I am driving those forward within my organization. Personally, I found this to be very exciting to see that companies are working to try to identify how well they are doing a disability employment.

Thank you. I think, with many of these tables, it is the glass one quarter full and three quarters empty or half full and half empty and some companies are doing great things with large numbers, but some in for surely are not. This chart shows, on the left-hand side, on average, the percentage of the employers, 3% on average of the employees are Americans with disabilities, people with disabilities and when you look at those that you have hired in the last three years, the average is actually only 2%. If people with disabilities who could work and are ready, willing and able to work for working in equal numbers of people without disabilities, those 3% and 2% would be closer to seven, eight or 9% and you can see the enormous disparity here. Roger? Carol?

I think it does pose a stark contrast to the 21% employment number and what it tells us is that there is a huge, untapped labor force that companies are missing and as later slides will show, this is a labor force that is productive, loyal, tend to last longer in a job and clearly industry, which has a baby boom generation, ages out of the workforce and after the recession passes, industry is going to need new workers. This is a huge, untapped labor force and these numbers really substantiate that.

I think Carol summed it up.

The next chart looks at those 12% of companies that have a disability program. This is the small mud already of employers that have a disability program and we asked them, essentially, what is part of your program and most of them say it involves creating or improving reasonable accommodation process, and offering disability awareness and sensitivity training and about half say it involves active recruitment of people with disabilities. If you like half of 12%, the 49% means roughly 6% of all employers have a disability program that does actively recruit people with disabilities.

We asked employers whether they thought the disability programs were very effective and the answer is, somewhat effective, half effective, one third, 36% and very effective, 7%. These are relatively small minorities of employers with the disability program and it is in exactly a ringing endorsement of their effectiveness.

My screen has gone blank. Does anybody else have anything on their screen? Hello?

I am still seeing the slides.

You are. It was my fault, I probably touched something. After a shortage of job openings, the main reason employers have hired more people with disabilities is what they perceived to be a lack of qualified candidates. As you can see, we asked them, they set an absence of job openings or a hiring freeze, due to the recession and of course in many cases. But underneath that, a lack of qualified candidates. That is perceived to be the major factor as why more people with disabilities have not been hired.

We asked them how they actually hire people with disabilities and the top item our employee referrals and friends are word-of-mouth referrals, which is very common for people without disabilities, followed by online job boards and below that, you see nonprofit or community-based service providers and below that, state or federal agencies. While substantial numbers are using those resources, public and private sector resources, they are a long way below the other ways in which they hire people with disabilities.

I would say this slide is telling, among the most telling and the whole deck and is at the root of the fact that 21% of people with disabilities are employed in only 3% of their workforce, are having trouble finding people and it is no surprise, when you are resorting to referrals in word-of-mouth is your two main sources of getting new candidates. Those informal means of finding people to your existing workforce are all aligned to replicate your existing workforce. If you want to bring in diversity and by people with disabilities, there is no other choice but to go through all of the channels out there in the communities, whether they are government agencies, vocational rehab, community providers, and for-profit companies like manpower that has done a very good job of bringing in people with disabilities. If you're relying on two different informal sources of recruitment, your numbers will stay at 3%, 21% of employment rate with people with disabilities in the workforce. You have to broaden the net I got two new sources of talent.

The next chart shows for those employers that are using service providers, public or private service providers, only 14% say they are very effective and another 16% say they are effective so you only have 30% in those two segments of the circle. With half being effective so that is not exactly a ringing endorsement of how good they are.

I would jump in there, to say that if organizations are using a community service providers as a pipeline to accessing talent pools, that they go through the same process that they would go through any consulting group that they plan to hire, whether it is an accounting firm, ad agency, search firm, any type of supplier. In other words, they should be as specific as they can to the needs and requirements that they require the performance requirements on the job so that those community service providers are meeting those demands.

I would say, on the supply side of that equation, the service providers for their part have to get a little bit more conversant in the language of their business and job development in the have to understand business labor force needs in the have to begin acting, as Roger said, as vendors. As you would to any customer, to go to your customer and say, what is it exactly that you need? What are the specifications? And listen carefully to the customer rather than telling the customer what I can provide to you. It is, to the customer, what is it that you need? I will help you find that person.

You know, Humphrey Taylor, we were at a US business leadership and network program a few weeks ago Chicago. And one of the panels was led by a senior executive from major US companies and in the audience were service providers. One of the issues these major corporations were saying, they couldn't source enough qualified candidates, in terms of people with disabilities to come into the organization and as Elaine and I sat there and listened to the presentation in the exchange that occurred between service providers and senior executives, it was as though they were talking right past each other. I really think it is so important to have these communication lines wide open and he gets back to making sure that the requirements are very clear between the Corporation, the company and the service provider and the service providers are really selling the value add, that the people they are bringing into the pipeline can bring to the organization.

I was going to say, it is precisely this issue, and a plug for the Kessler foundation, this is what motivated bridges to business which is the newest initiative designed to give service providers and companies to talk to each other and understand each other's needs and communicate better. This is an effort that is funded by the Kessler foundation, partnering with lows and three distribution centers and looking at three more now, without from business leadership network and the vocational rehabilitation agencies and also with Sam's Club, which is pulling together a group of vendors in Bentonville, where they are headquartered, to do the very same thing.

Thank you. I was going to give you a plug, likewise but you did it more eloquently than I could have. Thank you.

You could have been more credible on this one than I was.

The next chart asks providers who do not use these service providers, nonprofit organizations or government agencies and we asked him why they don't use them. The largest number said, because we don't need their services or we have not heard of them. And then a significant the much smaller number, saying they do not provide quality candidates. These are some of the barriers those agencies have to overcome.

We asked employers which of the following services would be most helpful to your company for hiring people with disabilities? The ones they would most like to have our assistance finding qualified candidates with disabilities and helping matching job descriptions to a specific set of skills. Some that are not insignificant, but those are the two items that people buy to final and they work with the service provider.

We found that most employers who can report on their employees use of flexible workplace arrangements say that the use by employees with and without disabilities is pretty much the same, 47%. Quite a few were not sure. Very few set last and a few more said somewhat more but this was a bit of a surprise. That perhaps people with disabilities with more likely be using these flexible arrangements. Most of them, it seems, are not.

This is one of the most important, maybe one of the most positive charts we have in the whole survey. We asked employers how employees with and without disabilities compared, in terms of these five items. The majority, in each case, said no difference on dedication, flexibility, absenteeism, ability to acquire new skills, and turnover. A majority saw no difference. What is interesting, weather was a bit of a difference, was that many more people so that employees with a disability should dedication. 35% as opposed to 2%. As you look at the bottom, many more people said it was less turnover amongst employees with disabilities. 33% than amongst employees with -- without disabilities, 7%. On all these criteria, employees with disabilities do as well, or better, in terms of the perceptions and experiences of employers. I think that is a good news is story that comes from the study.

That is a critical slide, as you mentioned, Humphrey Taylor. It demonstrates, it getting back to service providers, that they have a lot of ammunition that they could be putting into their story because of the value add that people with disabilities actually bring to the organization. To help improve an organization's bottom line profit as well as the top line. And I think you would have to ask a CEO, he would not want those types of values in your organization? This is one of the most critical slides in the deck, that should help every service provider in terms of putting together selling proposition that they can go to industries. And make a very powerful case about the hiring of people with disabilities.

I think this confirms what he might imagine, intuitively, that some of what the earlier poll findings show, the people with disabilities are less likely to have access to transportation, to socializing, two opportunities to go to public places, sporting events and so on. It is not surprising that people spend their lives to solving problems and being tenacious and being persistent and adapting to an environment that is not really made for them and cut out to be supportive of their needs. It is not surprising those very same qualities can be trained towards higher productivity in the workforce.

Thank you. I think that one hypothesis to explain why so few people with disabilities are working, is that employers have had bad experiences. That is a no hypothesis, that is what our survey shows that is not the reason why people with disabilities have not been hired this one looks at the pass. Again, you find a majority say that people with disabilities do not cost any more to be employed than people without disabilities. We have 35% who say they are somewhat more expensive are some are somewhat more expensive, but it does seem that cost is not a significant barrier to the hiring of people with disabilities. Another important conclusion from the study.

I think, Humphrey Taylor, this demonstrates a myth being shattered. People with disabilities, for the most part, are the same or slightly more than other workforce members, in terms of cost. If you look at it and say that cost is not that he turned, and if employees, individuals with disabilities are dedicated, productive, have low absenteeism, low turnover, all positive attributes to hiring people with disabilities. There has to be other factors and why companies are not hiring people with disabilities. I know that is an unanswered question for us, but it just makes you really wonder what is really driving this huge disparity between people with abilities of people with disabilities in terms of their access to employment.

Thank you. The next two questions relate to the ADA, Americans with disabilities act and we asked employees if the ADA if they asked her hurt and only 5% say they hurt their businesses and only 1% say the ADA had hurt the business significantly and maybe that is the most important single binding. Having said that, very few people seem to think it has helped them much and most people say it has neither helped nor hurt.

The next one looks at the ADA and we asked them how successful they thought the ADA had been, how effective it had been and, in fact, most people said they are somewhat effective or not effective or not familiar with the ADA. You do have a third that is effective but only a very few think it has been very effective.

We are fine here.

We have conclusion and that summarizes our sense of the big picture that emerges from the survey. The first is, very few employers are making any effort to recruit are maintaining employees with disabilities and employers recognize the value of the employees with this abilities and do not see cost as a barrier. The reason why so few employers are hiring people with disabilities are hiring so few people with disabilities, it does not seem to be on the radar screen, it is not something that they think about. They have a lot of other things on their agenda and these are very low, if they are on it at all. It is not positive resistance, it is just what they are not doing, as we saw earlier in terms of not tracking this, not counting those, not having programs to encourage the employment of people with disabilities and hopefully, the survey my provide ammunition -- the survey my provide ammunition to those that would like to see employers doing more.

I know that Carol wants to comment. To me, one of the United States long-term strategies and advantages over other countries, is our ability to attract and develop very creative endeavors talent base. To me, if you're hiring people with backgrounds who are inventing or building better solutions, more than anyone else, so that the consumer, the end-user of the products and services are either more productive or living healthier and more comfortable in their lives. If CEOs aren't hiring people with disabilities at all levels of their company, as part of the diverse talent pool, they are probably missing out on the largest minority group in the country. That represents the needs of the growing demographic in the United States and globally and we have not talked about the global impact here, but we have 54 million Americans with disabilities in our country and worldwide, it is over 1 billion. So we are talking about global 1000 companies here that could be impacting, not only the US market share but also the market share globally and from a macroeconomic point of view, that is a huge positive for organizations to be looking at the hiring of people with disabilities. Not just to improve the bottom line, but also to look at how the hiring of people with disabilities impacts the top line, revenue and market share.

I would add to that, and express, the income of all 54 million Americans with disabilities who are adults, is $1 trillion and their discretionary income is 175 billion, just a quantified what Roger just said and of course companies are increasingly conscious of having the labor force reflect the consumer base. The call to action, in my view, is for us, and the community of advocates and service providers and those of us who are working with people with disabilities in trying to change the numbers, this really tells us that we have to get much better at framing our message and making it into a message that business can understand, that same business as the customer, every bit as jobseekers are the customers, we in the disability community, have to do a batch -- much better job of communicating members that they have given us. And thankfully we have the numbers to substantiate what many of us have been talking about for a long time and businesses understand, if nothing else, they understand metrics and it's terrific that we have this tool to use with businesses but we have to redouble our efforts to use it and to communicate and talk to businesses and be at conferences and talk to agencies like the Society for human resource managers and others who are actually talking to the people they recruit within corporate America.

Thank you. I think it is worth mentioning, in that context, that historically, the surveys that we have done for an OD -- NOD, because they are not big enough to change the world by themselves. They can set examples and model programs but at the end of the day, to change these numbers, but hundreds of thousands of employers, or millions. And what we hope will happen, everybody on this call and indeed everybody interested in the whole issue of disability and employment of people with disabilities, can use this data in their work, with employers or legislators or engineers or wherever they work with. We see this as information that is powerful, if it is used. If it is not used, does not have an impact.

So we have a thank you slide and it shows the ways in which you can access the Harris firm, the Kessler foundation with any questions or requests for more information. As I said earlier, we at Harris and Kessler hope that people will take this information and use it in 100 different ways.

Just for the viewers, they can go to the website that is a there now, the 2010 disability surveys and access the survey as well as the survey that your first earlier, the gap survey that was completed in July. They're another -- there a number of additional resources available that website for people with disabilities are looking -- that are looking to advance their knowledge and access to the marketplace as well as organizations that might need additional information.

Before we take questions, perhaps we should say to any employers that are on the phone, we hope that you will come away from this thinking about having a specific program related to the employment of people with disabilities. Not just a policy, but a program. Secondly, they will make somebody responsible for that. And thirdly, over time, you will track how many people with disabilities who are actually employing. -- You are actually employing.

We have come to the time where we can take questions. Am I right?

Yes. Thank you. We certainly can. I want to invite people. If you open up the ability to send messages to participants, we would like to ask of those of you who have joined us, to send your questions directly to us. You can do it right now. We have approximately 5 to 8 minutes and we are happy to have presenters take the questions and respond. Go to the chatterbox -- chat box and we will get your questions and read them off here and respond the best we can, and the time we have. While we wait, I would like to make two announcements. One is to point you towards related resources from Cornell. We have a repository of over 200 research reports and policy briefs online and I have the URL for that. We also have 35 brochures in English and Spanish for human resource professionals which are addressing the very issues that are colleagues from NOD, Kessler, and Harris interactive, and they are telling us some of the issues and I would like to call your attention to those resources as well as disability statistics that are national and state specific. Let's go back to the focus of our presentation for today. Let me ask a question while we wait to see if there are any questions from the audience to her colleagues. I would like to ask NOD what are you considering to be your next step now that you have information, what does NOD see as the next step to make use of this in guiding your activities, especially with outreach to employers in the coming months?

As I said, our newest programs is one that addresses this gap in communication between service providers and businesses that want to bring more people with disabilities and to their workforce. A lot of the data is substantiating some of what we now. I think this reinforces, for us, the need for metrics. The need to have people inside. It reinforces the need to have somebody who is really out there, understanding the community of people who are sourcing job seekers with disabilities. Because, when you put together all those numbers, 3% of the workforce. 50% are hiring. Most perceive the problem is a lack of qualified candidates. Most don't understand or trust the word of public agencies and nonprofits, whose job it is to source candidates. Clearly, what the data shows us, this effort to build bridges between service providers and businesses, is more important than ever and it is something that we need to expand. The only thing I would say, these companies are not yet any point where they are ready to spend money on these things and clearly the survey substantiate that. I would say to her colleagues, both in the public sector and the not-for-profit sector, Kessler's is a huge leader and is taking steps that no other organization is taking to feed these programs that foster better relationships. We need that kind of investment because I don't think we're at a point, historically, where businesses are going to be ready to reach into their own pockets alone. We need to have some pump priming of the kind that the Kessler foundation has been doing, almost celebrate they need others to become their partners.

I could not agree more. You are right on target. I will also mention that are funding agency recognizes that. In a recent RSP that they put up for employer practices, it was a required part of that that this new center that is devoted to employer practices, also partner with the technical assistance, continuing education training centers funded by the rehabilitation centers administration. I see that as an indication that there is a real recognition at the federal level, the importance of partnership between employers and community service providers. In attempting to make a marriage of those interests and funding projects that are required to reach out and make that match. I think that is a very wise approach on behalf of the US Department of Education to make that happen. I am pleased to say that Cornell is going to be a part of that process. We are a recipient of that award. Who will certainly be trying to approximate those values in our efforts. It is an important part of trying to address these issues, for sure.

Right now, we do not have any questions that have come in. I will ask our presenters, are there any other, to apply to make as we have no questions. We will close and I will just mention, go ahead.

I believe there are questions. Scrolling across our page.

The first question on my says do have specific examples of state or local government designed to retain individuals with disabilities and maybe Carol or Roger convinced of that.

I would turn to Suzanne for that.

I did not see that question. I must not have a question but I could certainly try to respond. I would hope that people would know that it is always worth mentioning, for many years now, there have been a set of programs funded in a federal state partner match across the United States, there were 80 agencies devoted to services to people with disabilities and specific programs devoted to those that serve the blind. State vocational rehabilitation organization. There are state specific, these state Pacific resources that are very well seasoned, serving well over 300,000 people per year, trying to provide training and other specialized services to get people into the workforce and providing placement as well. There are many thousands of community rehabilitation programs that support the state and federal structure that specialize in training and job placement. The services are there. The gap is often in providing the kind of networking and outreach to employers, just isn't happening. There are certainly efforts being made but obviously, more needs to be made, what we hear from employers that they are not shared -- or about qualified candidates. We have to do better jobs about doing -- letting employers know where the resources and candidates are. I am not seeing the questions on my and. I'm going to let whoever has them in front of them read those.

Wanted astronomy, says are there certain disabilities with higher unemployment? We only surveyed 1000 people with disabilities limited our survey earlier this year. Which is it enough to actually distinguish between disabilities but maybe, Roger R. Carroll may have a comment. The one thing we have seen, the severity of disability is a huge variable and the more severe the disability is, regardless of disability, the less likelihood there is that that person will be employed.

I recall that from the study as well, Humphrey Taylor. I know the study did not separate cognitive or physical. Someone asked the question. Michael asked the question, what is your opinion on disclosing a disability until it is absolutely necessary? Because we are at Kessler and integrated right into the Kessler Institute where many of the patients come and enter into our clinical studies. In our research of center, some of the people I have talked to, have indicated that they have had success with disclosing a disability. Particularly, a physical one, and actually talking about it. I'm going to briefly talk about that. An individual that is in a wheelchair. And this individual talks about their disability very openly, with a prospective employer in terms of the value that they can bring to the organization. In terms of helping to identify better ways to improve their products and their services. To the disability community. Where an employer can't bring up the subject, the potential employee is, in this case, taking the assertive position of actually bringing up his or her disability and finding a way to add value to the disability in terms of how it is going to help the organization.

That is one thought and I am sure there are many others, Michael. But that is one thought, with an individual that has a severe physical disability. But can communicate. Actively with a potential employer. There was another question with regards to where they can get access to the gap survey and that is actually at the 2010 disability survey website, which was the last slide. It has a website that contains all of the information if you are looking for that.

This is Meg, I am saying a questionthat is good for Humphrey Taylor to address. It would be helpful if there is a count along with stats, percentages are meaningless. Do you want to comment on that? I hear that from time to time as well.

Unfortunately, the sound is not very good. Can you repeat it?

To somebody who the question?

The question was, do you have numbers in addition to percentages?

Yes. Having said that, of course, the whole purpose of these dirt -- survey, people with disabilities, and employers, so they are not projectable. In most cases, they are being interviewed, a minute fraction of the global population but hopefully a representative cross-section so it really is the percentages that matter. Yes, the individual frequencies are available, to anybody that wants them.

The numbers are weighted. The number isn't necessarily exactly the same as the percentage. The percentage is more reliable than the number.

There is a question from a happy -- statistics on workplace injuries of employees with disabilities and those without. Maybe I could take a shot at this. The first is, where the United States business leadership program a few weeks ago Chicago. Walgreens was featured in a very significant way. If you were to talk to Randy Lewis, the senior vice president of logistics and distribution, he would tell you that 40% of their workforce, and the distribution site, are made up of people of disabilities and they have not run into significant issues regarding workplace injuries for people at disabilities. The only thing I would add to that, Elaine runs our programs at the Kessler foundation where we are finding, from an investment point of view, a number of startup programs with other nonprofit organizations, creating businesses that hire people with disabilities and I am not aware of this being a significant issue among the organizations that we help find and we have helped to create nearly 4000 jobs in the state of New Jersey for people with disabilities to the investment we have made over the last six years, and the state. And we are now starting to roll the program out across the Northeast and, in isolated places across the United States.

I am afraid we are at the end of our time. We do have additional excellent questions and I apologize to those of you whose questions we have not been able to address. I want to thank our presenters and Harris interactive and the Kessler and Cornell and the RTC opportunity to host this event to get your information firsthand and share it with so many others. I will posit and ask if you have any closing comments you would like to make.

I would like to thank Cornell and we're very thankful to Kessler and without this, it would never have been done.

Thank you Cornell.

Thank you. Go ahead.

I was thanking you, Susanne Bruyere, for giving us this opportunity for getting the word out. This is what we have to do for the survey data and thank you for creating this hour-long presentation.

Thank you Susanne Bruyere.

It has been our pleasure and I want to thank those of you that joined us today. I would ask you to give us the benefit of your feedback. Immediately, the end of the session, there'll be a pop-up window with an evaluation I would ask that you take a few minutes to complete that for us. We take very seriously here feedback about how to improve these programs and we look forward to having you join us at a future time. Thank you so much.

[Event concluded]